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Agency Caucasus: IT IS A MATTER OF LIFE AND DEATH: CHECHNYA

posted by eagle on January, 2006 as Genocide Crime


From: Eagle_wng  (Original Message) Sent: 1/23/2006 7:23 PM

CHAPTER 2

IT IS A MATTER OF LIFE AND DEATH: CHECHNYA



The historical span to destroy Chechnya

The abolition of the USSR Constitution in year 1991 resulted with The Independence of The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria along with the Baltic States and Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.

Declaration of independence followed the presidential elections in Chechnya under the international observation from 42 states and a democratic government is elected.

Dissolution of USSR brought international recognition to newly independent states but Chechnya was exception to 'de Jure' recognition out of political considerations. Chechnya has refused the union with The Russian Federation on 31 March 1992 and have stayed out of the referendum to Russian Federal Constitution and Russian Parliamentary Elections on 12 December 1993. The hesitating Tatarstan later had joined The Russian Federation on 13 March 1994 forming State Duma and parliamentary elections.
Chechen President Aslan Maskhadov and Russian general Alexander Lebed signed the 31 August 1996 Khasavyurt Agreement and projected to solve the problems between Chechnya and Russia until 31 December 2001. This Khasavyurt Agreement had avoided to recognize the status of Chechnya. And the Russian military invasion of Chechnya in winter 1999 has violated The Khasavyurt Agreement. Russian official wording says that the question is not the status of Chechnya but it is a terrorism politics of The Russian Federation.

Fact Over The Status

Perception of Chechnya as an internal matter of The Russian Federation leads to diminish the responsibility of those who commits genocidal crimes against humanity in The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.

The Chechen side of the conflict regards the signed agreements of year 1997 between Boris Yeltsin and Aslan Maskhadov as proof of recognition of Chechnya as an independent state. The text of the Agreement says 'Dogovor' (Treaty). Whereas, Russian Federation uses 'Dogovoryonnost' (Compact) or 'Soglashenie' (Accord) in its federal agreements. This wording has been perceived as the Russian recognition of Chechnya as an independent state.

In practice, "compact and accord" are used in texts of a Federal State. The international Law teacher Prof. Francis Boyle have said that writing the word "Treaty," Russia have recognized the status of Chechnya as an independent state but not an internal matter. (9)

Prof. Boyle indicates that "This Agreement's wording is 'The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria' and 'Agreement on bilateral relations' all indicates that two sovereign states have signed this agreement. The rational is that federal structure's relations are tuned per constitution and would not require international treaty. In nowhere of The Agreement between Russia and Chechnya is any reference to the Russian Federal Constitution. Russia as a part of the international community is required to observe the international law and can sign a treaty with only an independent state.

Second article of The Agreement is a clear proof of independence of Chechnya, which says, "Bilateral relations will be constructed per principles and rules of the international law." And this wording clearly indicates that international law is applicable to only independent states. (10)

It also must be remembered that Yeltsin and Maskhadov have signed The Agreement as fully authorized representatives of their respective countries.

Francis Boyle remarks that the signing of The Khasavyurt Agreement have opened the way to all other states to recognize Chechnya as an independent state.

Current Russian President Vladimir Putin has admitted himself by saying "In 1996 Russia withdrew all its military and law enforcement forces from the territory of Chechnya. Thus de facto, if not de jure, we granted independence to Chechnya. So nobody can accuse us of suppressing the desire of the Chechen people for independence. Once already we have given them such an opportunity." (11)


Putin, by these statements not only acknowledges the independence of Chechnya, but he also confirms that the right of independence of the Chechens are forcefully grabbed by the Russian forces.

THE FIRST RUSSO-CHECHEN WAR AND GENOCIDE

The First Russo-Chechen War in 1994-1996 have tolled the lives of 120 thousand of the one million Chechen population. The Association of Concentration Camp Victims of Chechnya have registered 25 thousand tortured Chechens in these camps and another 17 thousand Chechens have lost their lives after being tortured in these Russian concentration camps. (12)

Chechen People had another blow of misfortune by the Second War with Russia by 5 September 1999. Terror perpetrations on 31 August and 9 and 13 September 1999 in Moscow and 4 September 1999 in Buynaksk-Dagestan and 16 September 1999 in Volgadonsk are used as a pretext to invade the sovereign state of Chechnya. Russia was never able to demonstrate the perpetrators of these terror activities. Russian Secret Service FSB is accused as the perpetrator of these terror activities. And Russia still continues to court them behind the closed doors to the press services of the media. (13)

Grozny: The Second Stalingrad

The Russian attacks and bombardment in the First Russo-Chechen War was a historic milestone to indicate the scale of Russian
militarism: 4,000 bomb blasts have rocked the earth of Chechnya per hour in January 1994. When compared to Bosnia-Herzegovina the number of blasts per hour was only 800 in Bosnia-Herzegovina. (14)

Russian militarism have attacked on the civilian population of Grozny and surroundings on the date 6 January 1995 and have killed non-combatant civilian population. OSCE have reported that the war in Grozny and surroundings is the like of Stalingrad during the Second World
War.

SECOND CHECHEN WAR AND RUSSIAN GENOCIDAL ACTIVITIES
Material damage and Russia's undertakings


Russian engagement for reconstruction for its 1996 and 1997 undertakings were never realized and Russian active terror policy have devastated this small republic of 16 thousand square kilometers and have intentionally formed a vacuum of instability to continue its criminal activities.

Russian devastation have continued with the 1999 war and more than 50,000 Chechen houses are destroyed by the Russian bombardment. 270 out of 424 Chechen villages are completely
destroyed and unsuitable for habitation. 68 of the villages are partially destroyed. 14 out of the 23 cities are devastated.

Land Mines

Land mines in Chechnya is not a present threat but is a future threat as well. Russian Internal Ministry Administrator Sergei Aranin has declared on 09 January 2001 that "We planted more than 500 thousand land mines in Chechnya." (15)

Toy shaped land mines have killed and handicapped so many children that it's number is dreadful to pronounce. Vaha Bancayev of The Association of Concentration Camp Victims of Chechnya informs that 2,300 children are handicapped by mine blasts in year 2000. There is no definite figure available for years 2001 and 2002.

Dr. Umar Khambiev, Minister of Health in ChRI, says on this issue: "The most brutal and immoral are disguised mines, which have been invented for paralysis of children. In Chechen Republic many cases of application of similar mines have been marked. In our hospital, we nursed one child from Bachi-jurt, who lost a hand, having picked up a mine in the form of a toy, and other teenager from Tsatsan-Yurt has found the same sorts of alarm clock." (16)

Excessive Use of Force and Destruction of Civilian Population


Russia has violated The European Conventional Forces Agreement by actively invading The Sovereign State of Chechnya and has moved huge military elements without prior notification.

  Carpet bombardment of the elistanji village: On October 9-13, representatives of "Memorial" interrogated Chechens in refugee camps of Ingushetia. In the five stories written down in four different camps, the refugees (including Gunaeva Irana, MAGOMADOV Daud, IMURZAYEV Zayndi) spoke about the bombardment of the Elistanji village on October 7, which resulted in the death of more than 30 villagers.

D. MAGOMADOV was in Elistanji at the funeral of his niece Imani MUSAEVA killed during the bombardment, 18 years old, at the 6th month of pregnancy. According to his words, three streets near the school were ruined in the village. (17)

The "Memorial" representative A.D. MIRONOV was in Chechnia on October 9-12. On visiting the mountain village of Elistanji, A.D. Mironov pointed out a zone of throughout destructions (300x800m). According to the local inhabitants, the destructions appeared on October 7 about 12 a.m. as the result of a bombardment from a great height. A characteristic feature of the destructions is the mutual overlapping of zones of destruction by different kinds of ammunition. Thus, the carpet bombardment has taken place.

34 of those killed are buried in the Elistanji cemetery; according to the list made on the base of the inhabitants' evidence, they are mainly women and children. Besides, the bodies of refugees from other villages who had escaped to Elistanji and had been killed there (their number has not been determined) were taken away by the relatives to be buried in the family cemeteries.

At the hospitals of the cities of Shali and Grozny, the "memorial" representative interviewd the wounded from Elistanji (about 20 people). Only one of them was an adult man, others were women and children. (18)

Chemical Weapons

International agreements have prohibited the use of chemical weapons and the Russian militarism have used many prohibited weapons in Chechnya. These poisonous weapons have devastated the land and made it uncultivable and intentionally have harmed the forests by massacring the environment. Russian militarism have aimed to annihilate The Chechen Nation by depriving them from cultivation for food. And the remaing land is full of poison and unsuitable for habitation.

Dr. Umar Khambiev, Minister of Health in ChRI, states about the bombs under pressure or airless environment vacuum bombs:

  "These were widely applied outside of territory of Grozny, mainly underground. Now they are used in mountain areas in South of Chechen Republic. The damage put to organism by these bombs has different features. The victims struck in zone of perimeter of explosion, die within 8-10 hours from strong intoxication. The death comes from decomposition of vital bodies as a result of destructions at cellular level. Cells emit toxins into the blood and thus results in general poisoning of organism. Insufficiency of functions of the vital bodies results in fatal outcome." (19)

Khanbiev further informs that, in spite of the prohibition of the Geneva Convention, ball and needle bombs and shells have been used in Chechnya by Russians. It was used as frequent as using a Kalashnikoff rifle.

  "They are conceived so that to kill slowly, and result in terrible consequences for the person. The question is bombs and shells which blow up in air, liberating millions smallest needles and metal balls. Traumas are small, but quite distinct. Happens so, that victims of such wounds with needles do not notice the condition within several days. Many victims, operated even at an initial stage of victims, as it is potentially fatal creating dangerous complications, did not survive. Percentage of death rate as a result of paralysis from such kind of weapon in our hospitals has exceeded 30 %. Ball bombs were applied very widely." (20)

Grad, Smerch, Uragan, Skelet weapons usage were:

  "These kinds of weapon in dense populated places result in plenty of victims. There is no such region in Chechen territory, where these weapons were not applied. Recently "Skelet" are more often used. We are talking about shells with a length of more than 2 meters, which are stuck in the ground and fire in 500-600 meters of space, spread huge amount of splinters (in the form small metal squares extraordinary sharp on edges) in all directions within 4-5 minutes. "The pipe" remains on the spot as a skeleton. In its internal surface, there appear set of apertures through which salvo fire is conducted. The victims, who have appeared in zone of perimeter of action, are struck with a set of wounds. Death rate reaches practically 100 %. From 46 victims of the "skeleton", brought to us in hospital, we managed to rescue only one person." (21)

These weapons used against the civilian population namely poison gas bombs have effected the nervous system of human beings and resulted with paralysis.

Umar Khambiev: "At the end of July and in beginning of August, 2000, bombs and shells filled by poison gases, were launched in Chechen Republic on three directions: in area of Starie Atagi, in vicinities of settlement Vedeno and in settlement Tsentoroj, in district of Nozhaj-Yurt, in the South of Republic. I personally examined and treated victims from Vedeno and Tsentoroj. Wide publicity has got only one case found in area Starie Atagi." (22)

  "July 27, 2000 in hospital Benoj, where I carried out survey at that time, two persons were brought in unconsciousness. The question was about two inhabitants 17 and 28 years old of village Vedeno. According to persons accompanying them, one of them has asked, that he should be taken to hospital, the single medical institution working in those days in district. When he arrived there, where there was his comrade, there have already died 4 persons. According to descriptions of accompanying fellow, the mouths of dead people were filled with mix of saliva and blood, and their faces had cyanotic shade as if they have been strangled.

In half an hour, two more persons started to suffer from headache and to rave. Those who accompanied them, have told us, that victims became unbalanced and lost consciousness on road to hospital. The data of survey of patients: Inhabitant of Vedeno, 17 years old, in unconsciousness. He is very pale, his pupils are expanded, with muscular spasms, expressed tachycardia, increased arterial pressure, and stains from 2 up to 6 centimetres on extremes and on trunk. His breathing accelerated (till 50-60 respiratory movements per minute).
Plentiful salivation. Neither wounds, nor contusions were seen on body. The same concerns patient from Vedeno, 28 years old. Three days after when our wounded still were in unconsciousness, six more people from Tsenteroi in a coma with identical symptoms were brought to hospital.

According to accompanied person, who have brought them directly from fields where they worked. Three young people, who accompanied them, have told, that they were together with them, but we went to village to have meal. Returning after two hours, they found them in critical condition. All of them suffered from headache, shouted and, according to the description of accompanied one, behaved "as lunatics". They yelled from pains in head, roared, showed with fingers' gestures what tormented them; were possessed by hallucinations, cried, then laughed. And it is curious that symptoms in accuracy are the same, as at victims from Vedeno.

It became obvious - the question was not of an infectious disease, as some physicians could assume but poisoning without any clear poisonous substance. Later, in conversation with the young people, whom I found in the field, I came to the conclusion that poisoning spread when wood thicket located nearby was subjected to bombardment and artillery bombardment in the morning. When I asked them that what could be the reason after poisoning influence on them, they have answered, what they already thought of it, however guessed.

Five more persons were brought to hospital with similar condition. They are inhabitants Tsenteroj, at that time they were nearby to a zone, which had undergone bombardment. The medical personnel did not know that what is necessary to undertake. These 8 persons behaved in an incomprehensible manner. In any 10 or 15 minutes, extreme excitation was replaced by condition of stupor, and at last they lost consciousness. Then we began to apply to all patient therapy of desintoxication.

Characteristic symptoms for all patients: headaches, as if brains are broken off on part, pain in stomach, indisposition in all body, faintness, sensation of heat, extreme pallor, cold sweat, quickly arising and disappearing of stain on skin of extremities and trunk, spasms of obverse muscles, increased secretion of saliva, expanded pupils, tachycardia, accelerated pulse (140-150 impacts per minute), unstable arterial pressure (from 180-160/120-100 mm up to 80-60/40-30 mm), rapidity of breath, changing breathing sounds. The next day died two more victims, who were present near to site of bombardment and firing. Symptoms were the same, but less clearly expressed.

All those, who were brought to hospital, could survive. During treatment, doctors came across with ethical problems. All the victims were at ages of 17 to 30 year. It was much more difficult for their relatives to bring them to hospital, risking their own lives. The relatives refused to offer help because they knew that army divisions are blocking all roads. They said, that they preferred to die than to be captured by invaders, fearing never to discover any more bodies of their relatives. I contacted some of toxicologist through intermediaries in Daghestan and Ingushetia but it could help. Within two weeks we carried out intensive desintoxications, which eventually has resulted in positive results. As soon as there appeared improvement in situation, relatives have taken out them from hospital, not sure in favourable outcome as were afraid of the next sortie on part of militaries.

All were surprised with absence of movement of armoured vehicles of the armies remaining in the former locations. When I understood, that there was an application of bombs and the shells filled with poison gases, the reason of three-week respite arranged by soldiers became clear to me. Some days before, approximately July 25, soldiers have suddenly left places of known events, military posts were removed that has caused hearings about withdrawal of all armies from Chechen Republic. Constant habitual movements of tank divisions are stopped, down to August 20.

Probably they were sent to reliable place. It means that many officers from army divisions of the specific area were informed on application of these kinds of weapon. Knowing that some of us communicated with officers, I have asked, whether admitted though somebody that actually what has taken place in wood. One of them has told me: "On the eve of these events, when I passed through a post(Russian road and transport control), one of my familiar officer warned me that my people should remain at home and let them not come nearer to wood. That I did not pay much attention to his words as these places were exposed to bombardments each day, and people there anyhow were afraid to come nearer."

No doubt that many officers knew that has taken place, and I hope that there will be even one fair officer, who will open the truth and will give a testimony. In settlement Starie ہtagi, appearance of poisonings have attributed to any vests, which have been found out in cemetery, water in which people bathed, these are only the words of propagation much tried by Russians. To cover up traces resulted in the most fantastic explanations. At interpretation
of the cases given by us, attempts were carried out to accuse of indispositions of bad food in spite of the fact that victims were delivered from different places and in different periods.

I was and I remain firmly convinced: three incidents which have entailed behind so disastrous consequences (in Vedeno, it struck 6 person, 3 persons were lost, in Tsenteroi 18 victims, 2 were lost, in Starie Atagi 15 victims, 6 were lost, that is out of 32 victims only 12 were lost), form parts of one circuit, and that during 3 days of bombs and shells filled with poison gases of nervous - paralytic action, were applied in various districts. I think that international community should not remain indifferent. It is necessary to demand for conducting of an independent expert appraisal on revealing the use of similar types of arms and other kinds of weapon. On their suggestion, we, on our part, are ready to provide patients and testimony." (23)

Military force of a super power has now concentrated to this small North Caucasian Republic. Missile bombardments to Grozny on 21 November 1999 have killed 137 civilians. Maternity house and a mosque was the target. 13 mothers and 15 babies are killed at the maternity house and 41 civilians were dead at mosque. 400 civilians were wounded. It was 11 December 1999 when the order was issued to evacuate the city of Grozny. About 40 thousand people were unable to evacuate and thousands of them were dead after the Russian military poured bombs over them. It was 9 January 2000 at the city of Shali when a Russian military tactical missile hit over the elderly Chechens waiting in queue to get their pension: more than 150 Chechens killed. What mentioned here is in coverage of article 2 of Additional Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions, mass violations. (24)

................................

9) By Francis Boyle, 17 September 1997, Independent Chechnya: Treaty of peace with Russia of 12 May 1997, http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/63/082.html
10) Ibid
11) Putin interviewed by Financial Times London 15 December 2001.
12) These figures are provided by Vaha Bancayev, Head of The Accosiation Victims of Chechnya Filtration Camps
13) "The Russian media magnate Boris Berezovsky accused Russian special services of a series of apartment-block bombings in 1999 to justify a crackdown on Chechnya that led to the election of Vladimir Putin as President.
Mr Berezovsky, speaking at a news conference in London, produced what he said was "real proof" of the claim, and called for the European Union to investigate the September 1999 bombings that left 300 dead. Berezovsky said that while there was no evidence that Putin himself had given the order for the 1999 terrorist attacks, he was guilty of failing to prevent them or being "passive". Putin was head of the domestic successor of the KGB, the FSB, from 1998 until August 1999, when he became Boris Yeltsin's Prime Minister." Putin opponent urges inquiry into bombings, By Anne Penketh and Patrick Cockburn.
06 March 2002, http://news.independent.co.uk/world/russia/story.jsp?story=271340

14) International Reactions to Massive Human Rights violations: The case of Chechnia, Svante E. Cornell, Europe-Asia Studies Vol.51, No:1, 1999, p. 100

15) http://www.kafkas.org.tr/ajans/chechen_refugee_question.htm

16) Consequences of application of special arms by Russian aggressors, Dr. Umar Khambiev, Minister of Health in ChRI, Agency Caucasus, 31.03.2001, (in Turkish)
http://www.kafkas.org.tr/english/ajans/31.03.2001%20Consequences%20of%20application%20.htm

17) The non-selective use of force by the federal troops in the course of the armed conflict in Chechnya in September - October 1999, http://www.memo.ru/eng/memhrc/texts/bom.shtml

18) Ibid
19) Consequences of application of special arms by Russian aggressors, Dr. Umar Khambiev, Agency Caucasus, 31.03.2001,
20) Ibid
21) Ibid
22) Ibid
23) Ibid
24) Mass Violations of Human Rights During the Armed Conflict in the Chechen Republic, O. G. TRUSEVICH

CAUCASUS FOUNDATION REPORTS-4
ENDLESS G
ENOCIDE AT CAUCASUS AND CHECHEN TRAGEDY
Written by: Fehim Ta‏tekin - Mustafa ضzkaya

http://www.kafkas.org.tr/hakkinda/endless_genocide_It_is_a_Matter_of_Life_and_Death1-Chechnya.html


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