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Dagbladet: - The Olympic Construction- By The Mass Graves

posted by eagle on September, 2010 as Genocide Crime

- The Olympic Construction- By The Mass Graves

THNIC RENSKNING: Russian Olympic city of Sochi and the surrounding area was around even in the decade after tjerkesserne were killed and chased away. In 1872 was the first Russian tourist villa ready, and since it has escalated. Sochi was the star of the Russian tourist industry. More than one million tourists visit the city every year now. Photo: ASTRID Melander 

ASTRID Melander 
Magazine online

SAYS NOTHING ABOUT TJERKESSERNE: Russian Prime Minister Putin was visiting in the upcoming Olympic city last month. Photo: REUTERS / RIA Novosti / Pool / Alexei Druzhinin.

The built obstruction in the mountains of Sochi at the moment. Ski resorts in southwestern Russia, will house the Olympic Games in 2014. 

BUILDING TO OL: Here in Krasnaya Palana outside Sochi tjerkesserne finally surrendered to the Russians 21 May 1864. The name means "Red Hill", was made by the Russians and connected to the bloodshed here for almost 150 years ago. Photo: AP / Igor Yakunin

Coincidentally 2014 is the150th anniversary of the purge of the original Muslim population that lived in Sochi and surrounding areas. 

Their country, Tjerkessia , stood at the maps before both the people and the land was removed by the tsar's forces. Today, few know the story, but the descendants of those who survived the brutality and today lives in countries such as Israel, Turkey, the United States and Jordan. And they object to the website No Sochi 2014. 

HERE ARE THE OL: The Russian city of Sochi is located in the old Tjerkessia, as the map shows. The area covered 55,663 square kilometers (about the same as Croatia) and was estimated around two million people.

- What if the Olympic host had been the Auschwitz-Birkenau? Would it be acceptable to choose the place where 1.5 million people were systematically starved, murdered and tortured, a coalition of 12 diasporaorganisasjoner askedthe International Olympic Committee. 

They write that the Olympic venues being built on mass graves and that more than 50 percent of the original people here were killed when the Russians took their country.They demand recognition that there was a genocide. But so far they have been ignored. 

Fight against the Olympics in 2014: - You are going to go skiing on mass graves in Sochi, write campaign website

TODAY THERE IS no traces left behind after Tjerkessia.Sochi is an expensive and elegant seaside resort for the Russian elite. 

The development of the tourist city started a few years after the purge of tjerkesserne in an area which then stood empty. An entire culture was removed, but few are talking about the ethnic purge of Muslims living on the Black Sea coast and along the Caucasus Mountains. 

- Most books ignore the war against tjerkesserne and massedeportasjonene that followed. This has never been seriously considered by historians, writes author Oliver Bullogh in his new book "Let Our fame ask great" , which is about the various peoples of the Caucasus, an ethnically, linguistically and religiously very complicated area. The two million who live in Dagestan speak forty different languages. In the EU spoken 64 

Protested in NEW YORK: Circassians worldwide is against the Olympic Games in Sochi. Photo: Wikimedia / ShapsougSochi1864

Bullogh is one of the first to write thoroughly about the fate of tjerkesserne. 

In the Norwegian brick"Genocide The black book"from 2008 is not mentioned tjerkesserne, while destruction of the hero people of Namibiaare devoted a chapter and the genocide of the Armenians and the Jews have had more.And despite the purge of tjerkesserne has been called the first modern genocide. 

"He who has gone": Muhadsjir is the name of Muslims who had to leave their homeland. Caucasus was almost empty of Muslims during the war against the Tsar, many of them were Circassians, such as these in Istanbul (from 1912). Photo: Wikimedia

Historians have treated the subject do not agree on the case of genocide or ethnic renskning. 

- A clear attempt at genocide, according to Paul B. Henze , who calls the incident the first of the violent masseforflytningene of populations in this part of the world, an event he believes gave the course of the Armenian genocide. 

- Deportation of tjerkesserne can clearly be seen as ethnic renskning the massacre and burning of villages to force tjerkesserne to deport, writesStephen D. Shenfield. 

OVER 50 PERCENT OF POPULATION KILLED: - Olympic stage and villages built over the mass graves of tjerkesserne who mercilessly killed during the genocide, writes campaign organization against Sochi Olympics,

Bullogh on his side, he has traveled to Israel, Russia and Turkey to interview the Circassians living abroad and in the Caucasus to trace descendants. He has found old newspaper clippings and books from a tragedy that was widely discussed at the time, but went into oblivion.Not once in the country where it occurred is known, enter Bullogh, who believe Russia's version of history is characterized by false nationalism. 

AMONG THE OLDEST population in the Caucasus:Tjerkesserne was the largest ethnic group in the northwestern part of the Caucasus until the Russiansconquered the area (1763-1864). They succumbed to the Russian of power and flee across the Black Sea to its Muslim brothers in Turkey. Photo: Wikimedia

THE Circassian town of Kfar-Kama in Israel meet the author Idar Khon man who tells about the Circassian hero Sosruquo who was born when a horny shepherd ejaculate all the way across a river and a stone. He will also hear about Circassian code of honor,habze, which among other things, says that older never interrupted. This means that Circassians are inept translators and that their meetings last for days. They like the fact talk. 

Found on the map: At present there are few traces of Tjerkessia in Russian history. Such as a map before the conquest in the late 1800's. Today, these old maps of the Circassians who are fighting for people's rights.

Today Idar Kohn and friends internet to keep in touch with other Circassians in the world and to work for a common nation. But he says most people tjerkesserne have been used to work for the majority population and have adapted to it: 

- When the British were here, we worked for them as policemen. In 1948 went some younger men in the Israeli army, "said Khon, who dislike conflict with the Palestinians, but still working in the Army and is loyal to Israel, where a total of about 4,000 Circassians live. 

They dream of getting their country back. But Russia will not recognize the assault Tsar's regime was behind, they would still not talk about the case. 

In Russian history, not the nations who lived in the Caucasus has been regarded as separate nationalities, but considered a part of the Ottoman Empire . None of extinction tjerkesserne and other Muslims in the region have been treated as losses in the war against the Turks.Muslims can be seen also down on the regime, which currently has major problems with Chechen Muslims. 

The Russians took over: Today build the hefty in Sochi, situated in a subtropical climate and the Caucasus Mountains as a backdrop. Photo: ASTRID Melander

After the fall of the wall, some Circassians have returned to their home country of Russia, after it had been impossible in 70 years. But still today have not tjerkesserne the same rights as ethnic Russians and they face bureaucratic obstacles. You have to be Russian and Russian culture for the delay, according to a Putin decree of 2006. 

THE Circassian flag: Still today Circassians live in Russia, but not in their home area. After the war they had promised to submit to move to an area north of the Caucasus Mountains, where descendants still live. Stalin divided the people into different regions, presumably to divide them. Photo: Wikimedia

- Almost 90 percent of the remaining Circassian population live outside their homeland, proportionally, this is the largest diaspora in the world. Circassians have no right to return, writes organiasasjonen campaign against the Olympics. They write about the protests that dies down, imprisonment and forced relocation of local residents in connection with the Olympics. In his book of interviews Bullogh a Circassian activist who has often been death threats on the phone at night, and his store closed by health officials. This summerhe received asylum in the U.S.. 

MEMORY their ancestors: ceremonies in Sochi in May this year in memory of tjerkesserne who sacrificed themselves during the war against the Russians. Photo:wikimedia

Mountains Here and mountaineers who lived on them were an obstacle to the Tsar, which would south. At the end of the 1700s began working with the Russians to conquer a way through the Caucasus - the natural prevented to come to Georgia, Turkey, Persia and India.Russia's border was marked with the river Kuban , but now they would south of it to take over areas of the weakened Ottoman Empire and Persia.When did the Black Sea and the ports here. 

WAS A BIT ON Plain: The late Boris Yeltsin is the only Russian leader who has been on this subject. In 1994, he said, that opposition to the tsarist regime in the North Caucasus were legitimate, but he acknowledged no responsibility for the genocide. Photo: AP / Alexander Zemlianchenko

In 1783, the first obstacle removed, as they drove out the Turkish steppe nomads west of the Sea of Azov .Nogai Horde was the last free descendants of Genghis Khanin Europe. They had lived here for as long as the residents had ruled Russia, but residents had grown larger.The start of the road south had been cleared, the Russians could reach the Black Sea, but they had through the Caucasus Mountains. 

Worn TOURIST BEACH: Tjerkessia was further touristy under the Communists, who built their own holiday and work sanatorium along the Black Sea coast. This is a worn Communist mammoth in Pitsunda in present-day Abkhazia, which belonged to the former Circassian Empire. Photo: ASTRID Melander

It went over the mountain people. 

ALL The Russian army in the area were against tjerkesserne after the Muslim hero, Imam Shamil , the leader of the intense and long lasting resistance against the Soviets in Kakasus, surrendered in 1859. 

Has its own Republic: Abkhazerne, has its own state on Black Sea coast, but few countries have recognized it.Tjerkesserne supports the fight and participated by about 2000 men in the war against Georgia on abkhasernes page. They perceive abkhazerne as a Circassian tribe.Photo: AP / Yuri Ivaschenko

Tjerkessia were no modern state, but composed of many different clans, and they did not have one leader they could turn in battle. The Russians looked for another way to win than to defeat them militarily. An American who traveled Kaka sauce in the 1850s quoted a Russian prince, he spoke with: 

- These tjerkesserne is just like the Indians - indomitable and uncivilized (..) extinction alone can quiet the them. 

In a myriad of spelling: the Caucasus are among the world's most ethnically complex place. The capital of Abkhazia, old tjerkesserland, you spelled Sukhumi, Sukhum, Sokhumi, Sukumi, Sookom, Soukom and so on.Photo: ASTRID Melander

Many Circassians fled before it was absolutely necessary. 

OTHERS continued the fight.They were met by the advancing Russian troops as more or less made a line on the north side of the Caucasus and pushed in front of people towards the highest point. The Russians burned down the Circassian villages and refugee groups grew.They were forced over the passes and rushed towards the sea. Natural conditions here would, in many places cut slopes straight down into the sea. Russia's goal was to expel tjerkesserne out of the region, a Russian military also talked about ethnic renskning, writes Bullogh. 

Captain: Imam Shamil, the great leader of the Muslim tribes of the Caucasus, succumbed to the Russian army in 1859, after having humiliated them for 20 years. Five years after it was over. Photo: Wikimedia

This led to massedød. On the way Russians spread panic, looted and ate up the food in the villages. The winter and failed crops did their people died. 

- We met several groups fleeing from the Russians.These unfortunate people were in the saddest condition: Almost without clothes in front of them drove the young sheep flocks, their only source of food, men, women, children came quietly for a few horses that had all the household belongings and everything they could to get along with them, wrote the Frenchman Arthur de Fonvielle who was among the foreigners who came to help tjerkesserne. 

Circassian War: mountain people was known for his harsh opposition to the Russians. Still today the Russians struggle with guerrilla fighters in the Caucasus. Photo:Wikimedia

Fonvielle as a whole group of people being washed away as they passed over one of the many rivers. For each new place the Russians did allow the people to flee to join up with those still fighting. Many groups froze to death and was taken by storm and the resistance was weakened. 

In military campaigns between 1860 and 1864 the area was almost empty of Muslims. Ottoman Empire offered the refugees place. 

On the Circassian beaches filled boat owners up the boat with several hundred per cent overload. Some refugees paid trip with their children. The journey took a week and all they had with him was a little water and grains. 

Boaters who returned told of people who were thrown overboard, the boat where half dead and the fighting between the crew and passengers. But on the beaches, people had decided.They sat in the snow and wind, waiting for the next transport over the Black Sea.It was told about the boat fully loaded so that the crew had to step on passengers' heads to find their place. 

An entire village MOVED BACK: In 1998 moved Circassians who had lived in Kosovo back to Russia. The people had lived in Kosovo since the end of the 1800s.Now they fled from war again. Photo: AP / Tanya Makeyeva

In 1864, the last Circassian surrendered to them. 

- In what was the first modern genocide on European soil, 50 years before the Turkish slaughter of Armenians, 90 years before the Holocaust, died perhaps as many as 300,000 Circassians of hunger, violence, drowning and disease, when Russia expelled them from their land by the ultimate loss, writes the author. 

Having a prominent position in JORDAN: In April this year was the movie "Circassians" in the movie in Amman.It's about tjerkessernes arrival in Jordan and how they founded the city on the ruins of a Roman city. Photo: AFP / Khalil MAZRAAWI

The figures are uncertain. 

Historian Adolf Berzhe wrote after the event that the 400,000 Circassians were killed in the war, 497,000 were deported and 80,000 were left behind. The tribes who remained had to swear loyalty to the tsar and go on to be moved north. The descendants still live in the republic they had, Respublika Adygeya, on the wrong side of the Caucasus Mountains and in one of the poorest regions in Russia. 

Bodyguard to the royal family Tjerkesserne in Jordan, here on a dance show. Photo: AP / Mohammad abu Ghosh

CIRCASSIANS who fled to Turkey thanks to Allah when they saw the Turkish banks.But the turkey since floating bodies. In the Turkish city ofTrabzon wrote a consul that drinking water was poisoned by the same and that the area around the burial sites were uninhabitable because the bodies accumulated.Tjerkesserne were placed in camps where hundreds died daily. In the town of Samsunto the west, it was even worse. Sick pressed together, without shelter, disease spread. 

Circassian beauty: Was a concept in the Ottoman Empire. There was a notion that women here were especially beautiful, some had blue eyes and blond hair.Photo: Wikipedia / painting Giulio Rosati

It turned out to be just as bad all the towns around the Black Sea tjerkesserne had gone to. The ships dumped people on the beaches where they lived under the open sky.When they came to the camps that were set up for them, they refused to flee. The Ottoman Empire feared they would spread disease. 

Warrior In MAMMELUK Army: Tjerkesserne served in the guard army in Egypt. Many of them were originally taken as slaves, but the Mamluks eventually made a powerful ruling class in the country. Photo: Wikimedia

People displacement of Muslims in the area continued until 1867, when it was largely completed. A Russian Census of 1897 records only 150,000 Circassians in the country, some estimate is that it was a noble Official Journal of the number before the war. 

4000 Circassians live in Israel: It fits an Israeli policeman during a demonstration in Jerusalem against the unequal treatment of Druze and Circassians. The picture is from last summer. Photo: REUTERS / Baz Ratner

Stalin would later take over,one time he was commissioner for minorities people , and he scattered the remaining tjerkesserne in different areas.His fears of minorities in the kingdom is now well known.The legacy we see continued.Today tjerkesserne fighting for recognition of the peoples called adygey , Circassians,kabardinere and shapsugere is the same peoples, namely, Circassians, and not four different people. 

Boasted by Cossacks: When the Russians were to present the Olympic city of Sochi in 2007 was Cossack culture in the program. Cossacks, a south-Russian ethnic group, took tjerkessernes country after the original people were exterminated. Photo: Wikimedia / painting by Ilya Repin Yefimovich.

THERE ARE NO to lob in the U.S. Congress concerning the recognition of the genocide of tjerkesserne. Nor is there any international pressure to get Russia to recognize the brutality. In the diaspora, there is a movement working for international recognition of genocide day 21 May, the day they finally had to surrender.Among the young Circassian nationalism is in vogue.Parliament of Georgia - not Russia-friends - are considering now that the first country in the world to recognize the genocide of tjerkesserne. 

A few hundred have turned back to the Caucasus to establish himself again, but many have returned disappointed, writes Bullogh.They think the remaining tjerkessisktalende population has been Russified. And they left the area was populated by Russians, Ukrainians, Georgians and tourists. 

Today, there are about three million Circassians in Turkey and 300 000 other parts of the world. According to the latest Russian census of 2002 there live 720 000 Circassians, Russia. 

In 2007, Vladimir Putin gave a speech to the International Olympic Committee. He listed the ancient Greeks, Cossacksand Georgians explained that former residents of Sochi.Tjerkesserne was not mentioned. When Russia was to showcase the local culture of the Sochi Olympics in Vancouver, they took a Kossak-dancing troupe. The Cossacks are considered by tjerkesserne as agents of Russian imperialism and that essential in destroying Tjerkessia. 

Now they ask for an apology.But they will probably not. 

This article is written by the magazine online editorial, and not published in the paper edition. If you have questions or comments, send them to us at the e-mail. 


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