SAYS NOTHING ABOUT TJERKESSERNE: Russian Prime Minister Putin was visiting in the upcoming Olympic city last month. Photo: REUTERS / RIA Novosti / Pool / Alexei Druzhinin.
built obstruction in the mountains of Sochi at the moment. Ski resorts in
southwestern Russia, will house the Olympic Games in 2014.
BUILDING TO OL: Here in Krasnaya Palana outside Sochi tjerkesserne finally surrendered to the Russians 21 May 1864. The name means "Red Hill", was made by the Russians and connected to the bloodshed here for almost 150 years ago. Photo: AP / Igor Yakunin
Coincidentally 2014 is the150th anniversary
the purge of the original Muslim population that lived in Sochi and surrounding
Their country, Tjerkessia
stood at the maps before both the people and the land was removed by the tsar's
forces. Today, few know the story, but the descendants of those who
survived the brutality and today lives in countries such as Israel, Turkey, the
United States and Jordan. And they object to the website No Sochi 2014.
HERE ARE THE OL: The Russian city of Sochi is located in the old Tjerkessia, as the map shows. The area covered 55,663 square kilometers (about the same as Croatia) and was estimated around two million people.
- What if the Olympic host had been the
Auschwitz-Birkenau? Would it be acceptable to choose the place where 1.5
million people were systematically starved, murdered and tortured, a coalition
of 12 diasporaorganisasjoner asked
International Olympic Committee.
the Olympic venues being built on mass graves and that more than 50 percent of
the original people here were killed when the Russians took their country.They
demand recognition that there was a genocide. But so far they have been
Fight against the Olympics in 2014: - You are going to go skiing on mass graves in Sochi, write campaign website NoSochi2014.com
TODAY THERE IS
no traces left behind after Tjerkessia.Sochi is an
expensive and elegant seaside resort for the Russian elite.
The development of the tourist city started a few
years after the purge of tjerkesserne in an area which then stood
empty. An entire culture was removed, but few are talking about the ethnic
purge of Muslims living on the Black Sea coast and along the Caucasus
- Most books ignore the war against tjerkesserne
and massedeportasjonene that followed. This has never been seriously
considered by historians, writes author Oliver Bullogh in his new book "Let Our fame ask
, which is about the various peoples of the
Caucasus, an ethnically, linguistically and religiously very complicated
area. The two million who live in Dagestan speak forty different
languages. In the EU spoken 64
Protested in NEW YORK: Circassians worldwide is against the Olympic Games in Sochi. Photo: Wikimedia / ShapsougSochi1864
Bullogh is one of the first to write thoroughly
about the fate of tjerkesserne.
In the Norwegian brick"Genocide The black
from 2008 is not mentioned tjerkesserne, while destruction of the hero
people of Namibia
are devoted a chapter and the genocide of the
Armenians and the Jews have had more.And despite the purge of tjerkesserne has
been called the first modern genocide.
"He who has gone": Muhadsjir is the name of Muslims who had to leave their homeland. Caucasus was almost empty of Muslims during the war against the Tsar, many of them were Circassians, such as these in Istanbul (from 1912). Photo: Wikimedia
treated the subject do not agree on the case of
genocide or ethnic renskning.
- A clear attempt at genocide, according to Paul B. Henze
who calls the incident the first of the violent masseforflytningene of
populations in this part of the world, an event he believes gave the course of
the Armenian genocide.
- Deportation of tjerkesserne can clearly be seen
as ethnic renskning the massacre and burning of villages to force tjerkesserne
to deport, writesStephen D. Shenfield.
OVER 50 PERCENT OF POPULATION KILLED: - Olympic stage and villages built over the mass graves of tjerkesserne who mercilessly killed during the genocide, writes campaign organization against Sochi Olympics,NoSochi2014.com
Bullogh on his side, he has traveled to Israel,
Russia and Turkey to interview the Circassians living abroad and in the
Caucasus to trace descendants. He has found old newspaper clippings and
books from a tragedy that was widely discussed at the time, but went into
oblivion.Not once in the country where it occurred is known, enter Bullogh, who
believe Russia's version of history is characterized by false
AMONG THE OLDEST population in the Caucasus:Tjerkesserne was the largest ethnic group in the northwestern part of the Caucasus until the Russiansconquered the area (1763-1864). They succumbed to the Russian of power and flee across the Black Sea to its Muslim brothers in Turkey. Photo: Wikimedia
town of Kfar-Kama
Israel meet the author Idar Khon man who tells about the Circassian hero
Sosruquo who was born when a horny shepherd ejaculate all the way across a
river and a stone. He will also hear about Circassian code of honor,habze,
among other things, says that older never interrupted. This means that
Circassians are inept translators and that their meetings last for
days. They like the fact talk.
Found on the map: At present there are few traces of Tjerkessia in Russian history. Such as a map before the conquest in the late 1800's. Today, these old maps of the Circassians who are fighting for people's rights.
Today Idar Kohn and friends internet to keep in
touch with other Circassians in the world and to work for a common nation.
he says most people tjerkesserne have been used to work for the majority
population and have adapted to it:
- When the British were here, we worked for them
as policemen. In 1948 went some younger men in the Israeli army,
"said Khon, who dislike conflict with the Palestinians, but still working
in the Army and is loyal to Israel, where a total of about 4,000 Circassians
They dream of
getting their country back. But Russia will
not recognize the assault Tsar's regime was behind, they would still not talk
about the case.
In Russian history, not the nations who lived in
the Caucasus has been regarded as separate nationalities, but considered a part
of the Ottoman Empire
of extinction tjerkesserne and other Muslims in the region have been treated as
losses in the war against the Turks.Muslims can be seen also down on the
regime, which currently has major problems with Chechen Muslims.
The Russians took over: Today build the hefty in Sochi, situated in a subtropical climate and the Caucasus Mountains as a backdrop. Photo: ASTRID Melander
After the fall of the wall, some Circassians have
returned to their home country of Russia, after it had been impossible in 70
years. But still today have not tjerkesserne the same rights as ethnic
Russians and they face bureaucratic obstacles. You have to be Russian and
Russian culture for the delay, according to a Putin decree of 2006.
THE Circassian flag: Still today Circassians live in Russia, but not in their home area. After the war they had promised to submit to move to an area north of the Caucasus Mountains, where descendants still live. Stalin divided the people into different regions, presumably to divide them. Photo: Wikimedia
- Almost 90 percent of the remaining Circassian
population live outside their homeland, proportionally, this is the largest
diaspora in the world. Circassians have no right to return, writes organiasasjonen
campaign against the Olympics.
They write about the protests
that dies down, imprisonment and forced relocation of local residents in
connection with the Olympics. In his book of interviews Bullogh a
Circassian activist who has often been death threats on the phone at night, and
his store closed by health officials. This summerhe received asylum
MEMORY their ancestors: ceremonies in Sochi in May this year in memory of tjerkesserne who sacrificed themselves during the war against the Russians. Photo:wikimedia
and mountaineers who lived on them were an
obstacle to the Tsar, which would south. At the end of the 1700s began
working with the Russians to conquer a way through the Caucasus - the natural
prevented to come to Georgia, Turkey, Persia and India.Russia's border was
marked with the river Kuban
but now they would south of it to take over areas of the weakened Ottoman
Empire and Persia.When did the Black Sea and the ports here.
WAS A BIT ON Plain: The late Boris Yeltsin is the only Russian leader who has been on this subject. In 1994, he said, that opposition to the tsarist regime in the North Caucasus were legitimate, but he acknowledged no responsibility for the genocide. Photo: AP / Alexander Zemlianchenko
In 1783, the first obstacle removed, as they drove
out the Turkish steppe nomads west of the Sea of Azov
was the last free
descendants of Genghis Khan
in Europe. They had lived here for
as long as the residents had ruled Russia, but residents had grown larger.The
start of the road south had been cleared, the Russians could reach the Black
Sea, but they had through the Caucasus Mountains.
Worn TOURIST BEACH: Tjerkessia was further touristy under the Communists, who built their own holiday and work sanatorium along the Black Sea coast. This is a worn Communist mammoth in Pitsunda in present-day Abkhazia, which belonged to the former Circassian Empire. Photo: ASTRID Melander
It went over the mountain people.
ALL The Russian army
in the area were against tjerkesserne after the
Muslim hero, Imam Shamil
the leader of the intense and long lasting resistance against the Soviets in
Kakasus, surrendered in 1859.
Has its own Republic: Abkhazerne, has its own state on Black Sea coast, but few countries have recognized it.Tjerkesserne supports the fight and participated by about 2000 men in the war against Georgia on abkhasernes page. They perceive abkhazerne as a Circassian tribe.Photo: AP / Yuri Ivaschenko
Tjerkessia were no modern state, but composed of
many different clans, and they did not have one leader they could turn in
battle. The Russians looked for another way to win than to defeat them
militarily. An American who traveled Kaka sauce in the 1850s quoted a
Russian prince, he spoke with:
- These tjerkesserne is just like the Indians -
indomitable and uncivilized (..) extinction alone can quiet the them.
In a myriad of spelling: the Caucasus are among the world's most ethnically complex place. The capital of Abkhazia, old tjerkesserland, you spelled Sukhumi, Sukhum, Sokhumi, Sukumi, Sookom, Soukom and so on.Photo: ASTRID Melander
Many Circassians fled before it was absolutely
OTHERS continued the fight.
They were met by the advancing Russian troops as more or
less made a line on the north side of the Caucasus and pushed in front of
people towards the highest point. The Russians burned down the Circassian
villages and refugee groups grew.They were forced over the passes and rushed
towards the sea. Natural conditions here would, in many places cut slopes
straight down into the sea. Russia's goal was to expel tjerkesserne out of
the region, a Russian military also
talked about ethnic renskning, writes Bullogh.
Captain: Imam Shamil, the great leader of the Muslim tribes of the Caucasus, succumbed to the Russian army in 1859, after having humiliated them for 20 years. Five years after it was over. Photo: Wikimedia
This led to massedød. On the way Russians
spread panic, looted and ate up the food in the villages. The winter and
failed crops did their people died.
- We met several groups fleeing from the
Russians.These unfortunate people were in the saddest condition: Almost without
clothes in front of them drove the young sheep flocks, their only source of
food, men, women, children came quietly for a few horses that had all the
household belongings and everything they could to get along with them, wrote
the Frenchman Arthur de Fonvielle who was among the foreigners who came to help
Circassian War: mountain people was known for his harsh opposition to the Russians. Still today the Russians struggle with guerrilla fighters in the Caucasus. Photo:Wikimedia
Fonvielle as a whole group of people being washed
away as they passed over one of the many rivers. For each new place the
Russians did allow the people to flee to join up with those still
fighting. Many groups froze to death and was taken by storm and the resistance
In military campaigns
between 1860 and 1864 the area was almost empty of
Muslims. Ottoman Empire offered the refugees place.
On the Circassian beaches filled boat owners up
the boat with several hundred per cent overload. Some refugees paid trip
with their children. The journey took a week and all they had with him was
a little water and grains.
Boaters who returned told of people who were
thrown overboard, the boat where half dead and the fighting between the crew
and passengers. But on the beaches, people had decided.They sat in the
snow and wind, waiting for the next transport over the Black Sea.It was told
about the boat fully loaded so that the crew had to step on passengers' heads
to find their place.
An entire village MOVED BACK: In 1998 moved Circassians who had lived in Kosovo back to Russia. The people had lived in Kosovo since the end of the 1800s.Now they fled from war again. Photo: AP / Tanya Makeyeva
In 1864, the last Circassian surrendered
- In what was the first modern genocide on
European soil, 50 years before the Turkish slaughter of Armenians, 90 years
before the Holocaust, died perhaps as many as 300,000 Circassians of hunger,
violence, drowning and disease, when Russia expelled them from their land by
the ultimate loss, writes the author.
Having a prominent position in JORDAN: In April this year was the movie "Circassians" in the movie in Amman.It's about tjerkessernes arrival in Jordan and how they founded the city on the ruins of a Roman city. Photo: AFP / Khalil MAZRAAWI
The figures are uncertain.
Historian Adolf Berzhe wrote after the event that
the 400,000 Circassians were killed in the war, 497,000 were deported and
80,000 were left behind. The tribes who remained had to swear loyalty to
the tsar and go on to be moved north. The descendants still live in the
republic they had, Respublika
on the wrong side of the Caucasus Mountains and
in one of the poorest regions in Russia.
Bodyguard to the royal family Tjerkesserne in Jordan, here on a dance show. Photo: AP / Mohammad abu Ghosh
CIRCASSIANS who fled
to Turkey thanks to Allah when they saw the
Turkish banks.But the turkey since floating bodies. In the Turkish city ofTrabzon
a consul that drinking water was poisoned by the same and that the area around
the burial sites were uninhabitable because the bodies accumulated.Tjerkesserne
were placed in camps where hundreds died daily. In the town of Samsun
west, it was even worse. Sick pressed together, without shelter, disease
Circassian beauty: Was a concept in the Ottoman Empire. There was a notion that women here were especially beautiful, some had blue eyes and blond hair.Photo: Wikipedia / painting Giulio Rosati
It turned out to be just as bad all the towns
around the Black Sea tjerkesserne had gone to. The ships dumped people on
the beaches where they lived under the open sky.When they came to the camps
that were set up for them, they refused to flee. The Ottoman Empire feared
they would spread disease.
Warrior In MAMMELUK Army: Tjerkesserne served in the guard army in Egypt. Many of them were originally taken as slaves, but the Mamluks eventually made a powerful ruling class in the country. Photo: Wikimedia
People displacement of Muslims in the area
continued until 1867, when it was largely completed. A Russian Census of 1897
only 150,000 Circassians in the country, some estimate is that it was a noble
Official Journal of the number before the war.
4000 Circassians live in Israel: It fits an Israeli policeman during a demonstration in Jerusalem against the unequal treatment of Druze and Circassians. The picture is from last summer. Photo: REUTERS / Baz Ratner
Stalin would later take over,one time he was
commissioner for minorities people
, and he scattered the
remaining tjerkesserne in different areas.His fears of minorities in the
kingdom is now well known.The legacy we see continued.Today tjerkesserne
fighting for recognition of the peoples called adygey
the same peoples, namely, Circassians, and not four different people.
Boasted by Cossacks: When the Russians were to present the Olympic city of Sochi in 2007 was Cossack culture in the program. Cossacks, a south-Russian ethnic group, took tjerkessernes country after the original people were exterminated. Photo: Wikimedia / painting by Ilya Repin Yefimovich.
THERE ARE NO
to lob in the U.S. Congress concerning the
recognition of the genocide of tjerkesserne. Nor is there any
international pressure to get Russia to recognize the brutality. In the
diaspora, there is a movement working for international recognition of genocide
day 21 May, the day they finally had to surrender.Among the young
Circassian nationalism is in vogue.Parliament of Georgia - not Russia-friends
- are considering
that the first country in the world to recognize the genocide of
A few hundred have turned back to the Caucasus to
establish himself again, but many have returned disappointed, writes Bullogh.They
think the remaining tjerkessisktalende population has been Russified. And
they left the area was populated by Russians, Ukrainians, Georgians and
Today, there are about three million Circassians
in Turkey and 300 000 other parts of the world. According to the latest
Russian census of 2002 there live 720 000 Circassians, Russia.
In 2007, Vladimir Putin gave a speech to the
International Olympic Committee. He listed the ancient Greeks, Cossacks
Georgians explained that former residents of Sochi.Tjerkesserne was not
mentioned. When Russia was to showcase the local culture of the Sochi
Olympics in Vancouver, they took a Kossak-dancing troupe. The Cossacks are
considered by tjerkesserne as agents of Russian imperialism and that essential
in destroying Tjerkessia.
Now they ask for an apology.But they will probably not.
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