138 Days to the Circassian Genocide 150th year Commemoration
9 January 1861 – Circular order of Chief of Staff Major General Zotov, the Head of the Natokhwaj Province, for the arrest of mountaineers returning from Turkey, and exile them to Siberia.
In the resolution of the question, how to deal with those Mountaineers who are prevented from having visa on their passports according to the periodic decree of our envoy of Emergency Affairs or for the Commissioner of our Minister in the port of Ottoman Porte, who find the opportunity to return home despite all of that, therefore the Commander-in-Chief ordered the following:
The persons concerned must be arrested upon arrival at our borders, and if:
(A) They belong to the submissive Mountaineers communities, immediately to be exiled to inner Russia to settle there permanently.
(B) If it is determined that those persons belonging to the Mountaineers communities hostile to us, they should be detained for three months to be exchanged with our prisoners in the mountains, and when the specific period of three months had elapsed, and had not been exchanged, they are to be sent to Siberia for permanent residence there, and in both cases, in accordance with arrangement with the administration and ratification of the Commander-in-Chief.
With respect to those persons who belong to the inhabitants of the Caucasus in general and were expelled to Turkey for various reasons and they got their passports extended then returned home, if they didn’t present a certificate by the consuls certifying the extension to their leaves or a certificate recognizing the legitimacy of the reasons of extension, with those treatment will be in accordance with Section I of the above mentioned law, which they will be sent into inner Russia for permanent residence there.
- Notifying your Excellency about the advice of His Highness Prince Alexander Ivanovich [Bariatinskii], and with the order of the Commander-in-Chief of the Kuban territory Forces, to be supervised as it should, I have the honor to stress about the request for the arrest of natives who are returning to the Caucasus from Turkey without a document of our consuls in the East on the reasons for the extension of the leave and be so prompt reporting to General Count Evdokia.
Krasnodar Region Governmental Archive (5)
State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, p. 389, op. 1, 39, l.3. Document # 135
20 February 1861 – Declaration from the General Directorate Viceroy of the Caucasus to the commander of the Terek region, on the transmigration of mountaineers returning from Turkey to Siberia.
Last year, the Mohammedan peoples of North Caucasus, seduced by the hope of a better life(*) and greater benefits in the same faith country, had requested the dismissal of them with families to Mecca for pilgrimage, hiding religious reasons a secret goal to settle permanently in Turkey. The Deputy Prince and with no difficulty to satisfy the desire of Mohammedans to allow granting them permission to leave for Turkey, but these deceived peoples with false hopes, started after short period looking for any way to return to homeland. When the first news came to General Marshall about that desire of the Mohammedans, he acknowledged the need to take all necessary arrangements to block their desire. In that regard during our dealings with our Imperial Council in Constantinople, the Prince Lobanov-Rostov through a publication circular to our consuls in the ُEast to categorically refuse to issue visas on passports for people with North Caucasus origins who have transferred to the Turkish nationality and who wish to return to ancestral lands to become citizens of Russia again.
With regard to those people who find a way to return home despite the mentioned ban, Prince Alexander Ivanovich wanted to enact the rules for the arrival of those people to our borders: The immediate transfer of those belonging to the Caucasus mountaineers communities, into continental Russia for permanent settling there.
If those people belonged the mountaineers’ communities that are hostile to us, they should be taken captives for three months in order to be exchanged with our people who are being captivated in the mountains, and when the specific period of three months elapses and they had not been exchanged, they should be sent to Siberia for permanent residency there, and in both cases according to arrangement of the subject by the administration and ratification of His Highness. As for those persons who are related to the Caucasus inhabitants in general and were expelled to Turkey for various reasons and returned home after having extended their passports there, unless they provide a certificate from the consuls that recognizes the extension of their vacations or to approve the legitimacy of extension reasons, they will be dealt with in accordance with Section I of the above-mentioned Order, which will be sent to Continental Russia for permanent settling there. Central State Archive of the GRA, p. 12, he was 5, 20, p. 27. ................................
(*) Through planning and agreement between the Governments of Russia and Turkey seek to empty the North Caucasus to their interests, Turkey, was sending inviting missions to convince and seduce the Circassians for the need to migrate to the lands that belong to the Ottoman authority and leave the country of the infidels as they say by all means. Where it intended to use them to protect Turkey by utilizing them as soldiers and to settle them at border points and points of tension and clashes, and to restore the waste lands, and the poor swamp spots, and their use in the Balkan wars would inlay its armies with this fresh blood that it is widely-recognized of its knighthood and capability. (1) As if that was not planned for, and they were not seeking towards it. (2) May mean the regular. (3) To be subjects. (4) Homeland. (5) To be able.
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