140 Days to the Circassian Genocide 150th year Commemoration
posted by eagle on January, 2014 as Genocide Crime
140 Days to the Circassian Genocide 150th year CommemorationDocument 222 13, November, 1863 to 20, May, 1864 From the letters of the Russian counsel in Trabzon, Moshaninia, addressed to the Commander in Chief of the Caucasus Army, General Kartsovo, on the displacement of the Mountaineers to Turkey, and in regard to their harsh fate. 13, November, 1863
... Based on proposals of the Caucasian leaderships, the Turkish ships’ owners were informed, that the Russian authorities will give permission to the Turkish ferries to dock in the Caucasian ports to transport the Mountaineers from there. Accordingly, forty Turkish ferries had sailed to the Caucasus coasts for the transfer of Mountaineers. Turkish ships’ captains are still afraid of going to the shores of the Caucasus to transport the Mountaineers, but this fear dissipated upon the return of some of them safely.
... With the strong support provided by the Polish agent, Podaiski, who has a strong friendship with the English Consul, Stevens, 1000 barrels of gunpowder, were carried to the Eastern coast of the Caucasus Region.
22, November, 1863
... Out of 42 Turkish ferries, which headed to the shores of the Caucasus, 24 had returned having on board, seven thousand Circassian deportees, and the majority of them are Shapsugs. The majority of those deportees were sent to Constantinople, and the other portion of them had been resettled near the Ziromeskoy road. As for the dead Circassians, the decision was made to bury them in the vicinity of the city and not inside.
28, November, 1863
... From 22 to 28, November, 16 ferries were sent to the Caucasus coasts, and despite the bad weather, five ferries had returned with 1200 Circassian onboard, and approximately 1000 Circassians were sent to Constantinople. The Pasha has expressed surprise of the migration of Mountaineers, and attributed that to Islamic fundamentalism and to our achievements.
... The huge crowds of Mountaineers can lead to serious consequences, and as I know some of my colleagues, had written about it to Constantinople, to stop the deportation. Their purpose about that is clear, where I learned that upon the arrival of the news to Trabzon, in regard to our accomplishments, Podaiski and those who work to protect him, will assist the Circassians who arrived to Trabzon to defend their independence. Because the Turkish government and with plots of our enemies can indirectly stop the deportation, and cause troubles by preventing captains from sailing, to our shores, for my part, I circulated a rumor, that the displacement will continue only until the spring, so as to force the local captains to sail to the Eastern shores of the Black Sea.
6, December, 1863
... Eight ferries have arrived with one thousand Circassians onboard. Today, Turkish ferries will transfer 400 of these deportees to Samson and one thousand to Varna. The Turkish Special Commissioner has arrived here, in order to monitor the situation of deportees, and instructions were issued from Constantinople, requires that the all Circassians who arrived to Varna should be re-transported, and to achieve this, two ferries had been allocated. That the English consul and Podaiski are not satisfied with this shift in the course of events, and they disservice to our operations and they are trying to stir up troubles towards me.
11, December, 1863
... In the past week, 1600 Circassians had been sent to Constantinople, and recently, two ferries had arrival, carrying 400 Circassians.
... The English Consul and Podaiski seek to stop the displacement, where they instigated the Pasha and other consuls, by sighting the serious consequences that can result due to the spread of diseases during the spring season, the local Muslim inhabitants who fear the consequences of this displacement, are gradually incited, and they bounty themselves by buying slaves which dropped their prices a lot. I have been told that the Pasha has purchased the most beautiful eight girls and paid 60 or 80 rubles for each one of them, to be sent as gifts to some Pashas in Constantinople. In any case, it is possible here to purchase a 12 years old of both sexes, for thirty or forty rubles.
... From the Poles currently available with the Ubykh, one of them came recently to Constantinople, that the conditions of the European gangs present with the Ubykh, are not going so well, to the extent that they are waiting for the right time to return, however, the Pasha and according to an advice from the English Consul and others, has decided to stop the process of deportation, if possible, until the onset of the spring season. At present, the number of Circassians living in Trabzon is between four and five thousand.
29, December, 1863
... A large number of ferries (approximately 70 ferries), had sailed to fetch the Mountaineers. During the month of November and December, the number of Circassians in Trabzon has reached ten thousand, in which 4500 of them were sent to Constantinople, Samson and Varna, almost an average of forty persons a day, and currently, approximately 3050 persons reside in Trabzon. That the Turkish government as I know, is very pleased with this deportation, and honesty, it is possible to say that the Turkish government has taken necessary measures, for the completion of the deportation of those deportees and as soon as possible from Trabzon. Unfortunately, the local Governor-General is neglected and with empty content, who has the responsibility of the diseases that the displaced suffer of, which are typhoid and smallpox, and here we are faced with situations in daily mortality ranging from forty to sixty people or 1.4%.
30, January, 1864
...One thousand Circassians had been sent to Varna.
...Also 1500 Circassians are brought to Trabzon.
18, March, 1864
...There are 20 thousand Circassian deportees in Trabzon, and since the month of November, 40 thousand Circassians were deported from the Caucasus.
...The cost of living expenses incurred by the Circassians, that the Turkish government bears has amounted to a one thousand golden Mejidi a day.
8, April, 1864
...The Turkish government will not send the deportees to the city of Varna, because the residents of the city of ROMILLY are not satisfied with the resettlement, and they have organized a complaint number
15, April, 1864
...Ali Pasha has arrived here, he is of a Circassian origin, and dispatched by the government to oversee the resettlement process.
22, April, 1864
...Among the conditions set by the Turkish government to receive the Circassians, is to exempt them from Compulsory Service (conscription), for a period of twenty years. At the same time, and due to large numbers of Circassians, the Pasha came out with an idea of the composition of military forces from them.
27, April, 1864
...This assignment is the responsibility of Ali Pasha, who arrived from Constantinople, and he is from a Circassian origin, which holds the rank of Lieutenant General. He was able within few days of his arrival, and in a short time, to convince 500 Circassians to volunteer for military service. Our consular saw the Circassian faction, and those who had been recruited, and here, to be fair with the Turkish government, good clothing was presented to them. This faction will go to Constantinople.
...To raise the desire of Circassians to join the service in the army of the Sultan, a restriction on males’ was implemented in Constantinople, and as a result, the trafficking of women has highly developed. Hundreds of women are sent to Constantinople to be sold.
...Recently, approximately 25 thousand Circassians had been transferred; Most of them were taken to Samson. When the population of Samson expressed their displeasure at the large numbers of Circassians in the city, the Turkish authorities had instructed the ships carrying Circassians to be directed to Sinop.
13, May, 1864
...In Sreder (an hour away from Trabzon), there is camp that is inhabited by 23 thousand people, in Calais Achkan (three and a half hours away from Trabzon), a camp that is inhabited by 17 thousand people, in Kerasunde (three and a half hours away from Trabzon), a camp that is inhabited by 1300 people, Samson inside the city, a camp that is inhabited by 70 thousand people, and in Sinop, a camp that is inhabited by 4800 people, and all that totals 76140 people.
1300 people were enrolled in the military service.
12300 people have been sent to Varna and to inner Anatolia.
The number of death cases since the beginning of deportation until now is 30 thousand people.
Total 160 thousand Circassians.
...As Your Excellency is aware, all those deportees were transported on board means of marine transport of Trabzon, with the exception of few of them, that were Russian ships, and without bearing any cost on our government and under bad conditions that had surrounded the deportation campaign: being the onset of winter and the imposition of quarantine. Residents in Saradir camp are mostly of the newly arrivals, where the Pasha plans to send them to be resettled in Bascelik Trabzon, especially in the areas surrounding the road of Erzurum. If this process turned out successful, the majority of the commercial convoys will pass through Georgia. The camp in Acka – Calais, will be destroyed and the remaining Circassians there will be deported into Bascelik. The aim is to prevent the spread of diseases, because Acka - Calais had suffered the brunt of the Circassians’ diseases. And it is not possible to pass from there. It was learned recently that the Mountaineers had hidden the corpses if the dead in their tents for several days, they had even buried them there, in order to get the shares of the dead.
...The Circassians living in Trabzon had exhausted their strength, due to the negligence of the Turkish authorities. That led to chaos and severe misery. In the previous week, there was a shortage of bread, as the bulk is sent inside Sivaski Bascelik.
...There are many who wish to join the military service, but the Turkish authorities classify them and to choose the right people. In any case, I think that it is not possible to form regular troops of those Mountaineers.
...The cases of death among Circassians have decreased significantly, with the exception of Samsun; where there are 200 people die every day.
...The poor conditions of transport, from the coasts of the Caucasus, onboard the Turkish military vessels is not in our interest. Where the majority of the deportees onboard these ships, are the notables of the Mountaineers and their rich people, and they bribe the captains of these ships to achieve their interests, and the imperial government is compelled to bear the costs of the transfer of the poor deportees, which would lead to the delay in our plan to deport the Mountaineers.
...To avoid delay on our part and to accelerate the process of deportation, our consular suggested that we made an offer to all deportees that will be transferred at their own expense and the amounts that would have paid will be returned to them upon their arrival to Turkey. Moshnina has given hints about the usefulness of this measure to the Governor-General who, although he agreed, but decided to wait for approval of his Government to direct the implementation of this measure.
...According to the available information to the Circassian Mission in Trabzon, 160 thousand Mountaineers have arrived from the Caucasus.
20, May, 1864
I am very happy because the deportation process is approaching an end, and there is no need to go to Constantinople, where the client that I had sent there earlier, had sent 50 sailing ships to bring the displaced. Within the previous days, several thousands of the deportees have arrived here, and so have the number of deportees who are currently in Saradir are approximately 40 thousand people. In Acka - Calais the number has reached 30 thousand people. Thus, the overall total of displaced Mountaineers has exceeded 200 thousand people. The doctors follow with interest the spread of dysentery disease, especially this time is the season of fruits. We ask God that this disease is contained, as it will not have the Mountaineers only suffer of it, but we will also suffer, because when it spreads among a large number, it will become an epidemic.
Government archives - St. Petersburg, 1-9, 1863, up .8, b .19, l .37, 47, 49, 57, 92, 59, 101, 103-109, 111-112.