Circassian genocide and the Sochi Olympic Games
Sochi Olympic trails will run over the bones of our ancestors killed Cherkessia.
2007th triumphed in the summer, then Russian president Vladimir Putin in front of the International Olympic Committee. Sochi had received a bare majority of the 2014th Winter on the right to organize. Putin in Sochi, listing his address never lived in nations: kolhid, Greeks, Cossacks. But he did not mention tšerkesse. It was a very eloquent "forgetfulness".
Indeed, it has long kolhid into the obscurity of the history behind the Greeks have suffered a little out there, and after the Cossacks were the Russian colonial tools. Tšerkessid the other hand, is still cumbersome. Their destruction of Russia's harshest colonial one page. After a hundred years of struggle culminated in a violent 1864th year. If, before the start of the genocide was tšerkesse North Caucasus suffered a couple of million, then after the massacre and confusion out of the country remained in the Northern Caucasus, but they are a hundred thousand people, some still considerably less data. Cherkessia a destruction of the 19th the largest genocide of the century. 2
The Olympic city Sochi's name (originally satše), or the Circassian adõõgi (Adygeya) language and it means "excessive heat". Just the Sochi region was Cherkessia last stronghold of resistance.Krasnaya Polyana ski resort in the future, namely the open is a poetic version of the Red got its name from the word autumn punetavate feet under. However, the Group believed to be yet another link, and worse: killed Cherkessia blood. Right there under the occupation of empty tšerkessidest took 19th At the end of the century the Estonians, one of the people cluster.
Cherkessia behind President Putin's silence is not confined to a single memory socket. Vancouver Olympic Games present the Cossacks were sent Sotšit dancing, indigenous people did not have to recall out of the question. If Vancouver and Salt Lake City Olympics, the victim was a former koloniaalsõja remaining Indians with dignity in mind, the organizers of the Sochi Olympics tšerkessid still a major project does not fit. Circassian-Russian opposition, the issue does not even mention the feathers teravaimad Boris Nemtsov and Vladimir Milov. These two months of criticism of the authority given to the Olympic project draws attention to the economic and logistical weaknesses. 3 is the corresponding chapter in the ironic title of "subtropical Winter Olympics", but the land of ancient pärisperemeesteni, this analysis does not reach.
It may, however, believe that the coming four years, the world hears a lot tšerkessidest. First, it is possible that the Circassian issue in relation to the Olympics in the world does not attract any attention. Second, tšerkessid already shown that they have the strength and willingness to actively lobby their sad fate, and to draw attention. Most assume that the Circassian diaspora in the West.
Today, the world believed to be five to six million Circassian, of whom only a small part of 2002.According to the census of about 720 000 people living in the Russian Federation, mainly in the North Caucasus. By contrast, in Turkey, where the 19th century to escape tšerkesse is now over four million. Jordan, believed to be 100 000, Syria 75 000, Germany 50 000, 20 000 in France and in Israel and the United States about 5,000 people each. Data sources are quite different.
One of the Olympic Games in Sochi in June against the group visited the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly in Strasbourg. True, there has been discussion in the North Caucasus Human Rights report concerns mainly the situation in Chechnya, Ingushetia and Dagestan.Karachay-Cherkessia Tšerkessidega populated areas, Adygeya and Kabardino-Balkaria were removed for detailed inspection, not to mention, of course, that would have turned out 150 years ago that took place in the People's murder. However, this did not prevent tšerkessidel kuluaarides work.I was especially pleased to witness the Chechen pagulasliidri Ahmed Zakajevi Cherkessia and charismatic representative of Iyad Yughari first meeting. The secret of success is cooperation, but so far can be generalized to say that the subjugation of the peoples of the Caucasus in Russia was a success because it has not been sufficient co-operation between them. On the contrary, a "divide and conquer" principle is the small nations of the empire succeeded each other with tulle.
New Jersey to represent the refugees from Yughar käredamat wings, which requires disqualification from the Olympic Sotšilt there because the trails begin to run over the bones of our ancestors killed Cherkessia. This can not be a celebration of peace and friendship. The second part of tšerkesse more moderate position, and they are satisfied that the history of gaming in the context of a proper attention to the Cherkessia. A third group of Russian central government loyalists kuulekamad Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria and the republics of Adygeya. In fact, however, all have a common goal: the fact that the Russian Federation to recognize the Circassian Genocide. Adygeya and Kabardino-Balkaria is a free, national parliaments have done their part and called on the request of the Russian Parliament. True, it happened at the end of the last century, when Putin was still unknown and there was freedom of the Russian society is much more than now. Last ventured to renew the request of the opposition Circassian Congress, which the Russian Duma also gave a negative answer.
In fact, the tension-free low density tšerkessidega countries has gradually increased. Russia sees threat to the ambitions Imperiaalseid bearing two idea what Circassian nationalists have suffered through the ages: they are separate republics scattered Circassian rahvakildude merger and co-operation between the peoples of the North Caucasus mountains or in distant view, the creation of the Confederation. The question is whether Cherkessia koostööpüüdlus natural fit of nationalism, or the central power in Russia is forming dangerous terrorists, against whom should be taking special measures. Islamic radicalization will find a favorable surface, where all democratic attempts to protect national positions have been exhausted.
Cherkessia diversification is certainly intentional. In the distant Soviet times from the breakdown of Kabardino, and tšerkessid adõõgid (Adygeya), all the separate nations. So eraldiseisvaiks listed them in the Estonian population statistics. Juri Dead Berg made the Estonian people Paper "We live in a few adõõgid, and Kabardino tšerkessid the individual keywords, although all three articles refer to as ethnic groups as well as the closeness of the Cultural Society in Estonia, they have shared the fourth Sisuldasa different fragments of the same nation, who are mostly separated by murdeerinevuste Russian (and formerly Soviet) administration. Incidentally, due to differences in abundance Cherkessia assessment to a large extent, no matter who is currently considered to be tšerkessideks.
Karachay-Cherkessia (Capital Circassian) remains close to them, and Cherkessia abasiinide share of less than twenty percent of them are about 80 000 In fact, dominated by the "republic" include Karachay Turkic peoples and the Russians. Better at the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria (Nalchik capital), where half a million Kabardino constitute slightly more than half of the population.Adygeya (Capital Maykop) is only a hundred thousand adõõgi, which makes about a quarter of the population. Incidentally, it is the same as the name (adõgi) etnonüümiga the people themselves, because "Cherkessia" is commonly used by Russians võõrnimi Cherkessia and Kabardino rather inhabited eastern sides of a geographical name. Diaspora in the English language using a consistent definition of circassians and if we want to wean russismist their language, you could instead continue to consider "tsirkasside" and "Tsirkassia 'introduction.
Tšerkessid of the Unrepresented Nations and non-profit association represents the interests of the Circassian Congress Centre Maykop. Congress Chairman Murat Berzegov has experienced in recent years, threats and kimbutuskatseid themselves and family members to the point out that her older son was seriously injured in suspicious traffic accident. This year was Berzegovile asylum in the United States. After settling in America, he has quite incisive interviews with the fifth Berzegov says, inter alia, that the Russian National Policy for Cherkessia duplicity became particularly apparent after the unilateral recognition of South Ossetia. Even very distant policy people can see that international policy is anything but consistent. How is it possible that the small Ossetian rahvakildu considered as a country, while the so-called high Ossetia or North Ossetia within the Russian Federation shall not be granted access privileges, lähedasigi? And again, if osseetidele created the conditions for such self-determination, tšerkessid then why not join in its historic habitat and why it does not allow refugees to seek historical homeland?
In short: Cherkessia self-consciousness is rising. While in the North Caucasus and Chechnya pingekollet primarily related to the Ingush, and he loved Dagestaniga, pays the remaining small countries are free to follow closely. It is no longer associated with the terrorist attacks only the Muslim extremists, but to have appeared on a new foe: Circassian nationalists and the Olympic opponents, who are "certain forces" to achieve its objectives exploited. 6 probably stamped peacebreaker and Russia, the enemy's plate in the coming years attached to anyone who Circassian Genocide issue twists. While Russia itself is moving in the same position as the People's Republic of China was the 2008th During the summer games. The problem is considered to be anti-Russian National salasepitsuseks, but the countries participating in the Games in Sochi in Russia provides irresistible supremacy of the distinctive emblem in the North Caucasus.
In fact, do not witness anything supernatural Circassian Genocide. Why argue with an age-old sources of the history of the event, after all, many modern countries have expressed regret at the atrocities that took place earlier in the history of time? Why does not Russia have a country? But Russia is not behaving like a modern country, and the management philosophy of many elements from the same paradigm on which the 19th People's Century murder was committed. Most countries have changed significantly compared to this time, but not Russia.
I will not stop here, further research with them, which is dedicated to the Circassian genocide. They are many and the fact that demand in the topic, whether or academic publications have appeared in recent years. 7 causes extensive destruction and deportation of the Russian leadership has sought to militaarstatistilisest thinking. A simple calculation shows that the presence of any foreign nation in border areas are inconvenient, and in order to expand the empire, to be "wrong" people to do something. Are exactly two possibilities: to be destroyed or displaced. 8 19th At the end of the century was designed to implement such policies and the way war Minister of Russia Dmitry Miljutin, but it was a precursor to both the followers, led by Joseph Stalin.
The emergence of human rights paradigm of the Cold War and after it has prevented the continued use of the same strategy. Destruction of the 19th Cherkessia century, Russia is not just history, but a process that is still unsettled in the Caucasus. It is therefore not considered possible to regret the Circassian Genocide. All of this, which is committed in Chechnya and Georgia (Georgia), refers to the same handwriting. Yes, the resettlement of peoples are not 21st century no longer possible, but the will of the peoples and the suppression of the legitimate leaders Kill (Dudajev, Mashadov), or attempts to political pressure, the deposed (Saakashvili) is for everyone to see.
Circassian Genocide Georgia is an extremely important issue. It is no accident that this year was held in Tbilisi on this subject in a high-level conference of the Parliament of Georgia has made a statement condemning Circassian Genocide. Circassian issue is not only an example of the nature of Russian colonialism, but it is also a way to Georgia, Abkhazia, turned back the soul. Namely, the Abkhaz Cherkessia close relatives and fellow sufferers. Abkhaz also driven by Russia to Turkey.Abkhaz language and adõõgi läänekaukaasia of the language group as well as the now extinct language ubõhhi. Incidentally, all these peoples, as well as Ossetian mythology, traditional culture and language scholars have been one of the most famous 20th Georges Dumézil grand old man of the century humanities.
An important difference between the Cherkessia and Abkhazia, however, is that most of the Abkhaz are Christians, but Muslims tšerkessid today. In doing so, has had a history of relatively recent islamiusustamine Cherkessia, and it was under the influence of the Turkish Empire, Osman. Bizarre detail states is worth highlighting the change of Soviet historiography, which took place at the end of Stalin's era. If a further thirty years ndail Cherkessia fight for freedom just described the revolt Tsarist government oppression, then fifty years ndail tšerkessid suddenly became the Sultan of Turkey and the Russian Empire, the reactionary allies owner vallutustööd began to represent the colors of the positive 9.
History has not ended, nor XY. Since the topic Cherkessia pulls himself over the coming years, probably more attention than ever before, it is up to us to feel good. As is the case with all oppressed peoples, their democratically expressed nationalist aspirations, if possible, be supported.
Karl Friedrich Neumann offers a book Russland und die Tscherkessen (Stuttgart und Tübingen: JG Cotta, 1840) Cherkessia abundance of a half million in the first half of the nineteenth century, think of the Abkhaz and Kabardino. Russians reduced (300, 000) and the steering Cherkessia increased (up to four million) estimates did not consider it realistic.
2 The Circassian Genocide. Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization) website: http://www.unpo.org/article/1639
3 Nemtsov, Boris, and Milov, Vladimir. Putin. Itogi. Let 10: nezavisimõi doklad expertise. Moscow: Solidarnost, 2010. http://www.putin-itogi.ru/doklad/
4 Estonian people Paper and ethnic minorities, groups and fragments. Compiled by George Viikberg. Tallinn: Estonian Encyclopaedia Publishers, 1999. James also assumes the same logic, I Han comprehensive stateless Encyclopedia of the Nations: Ethnic and National Groups Around the World. 4 Volumes. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002.
5 Murat Berzegov: Single Cherkessia is a Constitutional right of Circassian people. 18. 07. 2010thhttp://www.radioadiga.com/ClosedIndex/artikkk.php?ind=3498 . See also Paul Goble'i scraps:http://windowoneurasia.blogspot.com/2010_07_20_archive.html .
6 Diversion na GES - "podgotovka" k sotšinskoi Olimpiade (Interview with A. Krõloviga 22nd 07th, 2010). www.nakanune.ru/articles/14789 .
7 For example: Geraci, Robert. Genocidal pulse and Fantasies in Imperial Russia. In A. Dirk Moses (ed), Empire, Colony, Genocide Conquest, Occupation and Subaltern Resistance in World History.New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2008, p. 345-371, Henze, Paul B. Circassian Resistance to Russia. In Bennigsen Broxup Marie (ed) The North Caucasus Barrier: The Russian Advance Towards the Muslim World. London: C. Hurst & Co., p. 62-111; Kreiten, Irma. A Colonial Experiment in Cleansing: The Russian Conquest of the Western Caucasus, 1856-65. - Journal of Genocide Research. Vol 11, Issue 2-3, 2009, p. 213-241, Shenfield, Stephen D. The Circassians - A Forgotten Genocide. In Levene, Mark and Penny Roberts (eds). The Massacre in History. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 1999, p. 149-162.
8 Holquist, Peter. State Violence as Technique: The Violence in Soviet Totalitarianism. In A. Weiner (ed), Landscaping the Human Garden. Stanford University Press, 2003, p. 19-45.
9 Brock, Peter. The Fall of Circassia - A Study in Private Diplomacy. - The svenska Historical Review, Vol 71st, no. 280. (July 1956), p. 401-427.